Dictionary

Art-Deco:  a style often described as a pastiche of styles, is the predominant decorative art style that first appeared in France in the ’20s but eventually got recognized in its own right during the ’60s. It is characterized by precise and boldly delineated geometric shapes, an eclectic combination of influences, materials, and shapes and strong colors and used most notably in household objects and in architecture. It always searched for the exotic cultural elements through a luxurious and splendid style. Art deco marked the period between wars and filled the era that consumerism culture rised with an essence of optimism and one of its main features was its orientation towards the future.

Avant-garde: is described to be a new and experimental idea and method in art, music, or literature. The phrase is originally a French term, meaning vanguard. It first appeared with reference to art in France in the first half of the 19th century and is usually credited to Henri de Saint-Simon, one of the forerunners of socialism who believed in the social power of the arts and saw artists, alongside scientists and industrialists, as the leaders of a new society. The avant-garde pushes the boundaries of what is accepted as the norm or the status quo, that is, its aesthetics, its intellectual or artistic conventions, or its methods of production – to the point of being almost subversive., and is considered to be a hallmark of modernism promoting radical social reforms.

B

Bias-cut: When fabric is cut on the bias, it is cut diagonally across the direction of the weave, so that the warp and weft (the ‘grain’ of the fabric) fall diagonally over the figure rather than horizontally and vertically. The bias-cut is extremely form-flattering when executed well and is popular for accentuating body-lines and creating more fluid curves or soft drapes. It was championed in the ’20s by Madeleine Vionnet and later became one of John Galliano’s signature style.

Binary:

Body modification: is the deliberate altering of the human anatomy or human physical appearance. It can be achieved by tattoos, piercings, physical alterations that serve a specific purpose in a culture or religion, such as a stretched neck, branded skin or circumcision. It is used as body art, self-expression or to display group affiliation. Throughout history, clothes, such as corsets have been used to comprise body-altering results. The phrase body modification can be used metaphorically in reference to certain designers, such as Alexander McQueen, who utilized fabric in a way that did not fit properly the body of the model, it was not exact to her analogies, but it rather provided a different perception of how the body is to be seen.

C

Cross-dressing:

D

Dress code: is a costume code that constists of a set a written and unwritten rules regarding clothing as well as other aspects of the physical appearence of an individual.

 Φέρει σημασιοδοτήσεις που απαντούν σε κοινωνικά ζητήματα που ποικίλουν ανάλογα την περίσταση και την περίπτωση. Διαφορετικές κοινωνίες και πολιτισμοί έχουν διαφορετικές προσεγγίσεις στις ενδυματολογικές νόρμες, παρ’ όλα αυτά η δυτική νοοτροπία έχει γίνει αποδεκτή ως ισχύουσα και έγκυρη και γίνεται αποδεκτή από τις περισσότερες κουλτούρες.

Το dress code περιλαμβάνει ενσωματωμένους κανόνες ή σύμβολα που υποδεικνύουν την επικοινωνία που δημιουργείται από τον τρόπο ένδυσης ενός ατόμου. Το μήνυμα αυτό μπορεί να περιλαμβάνει ενδείξεις σχετικά με το φύλο, το εισόδημα, την απασχόληση, την κοινωνική τάξη, τις πολιτικές, εθνικές, και θρησκευτικές απόψεις, τις παράδοσης, την φυλετική έκφραση, την οικογενειακή κατάσταση και τον σεξουαλικό προσανατολισμό του κάθε ατόμου. Η διαφορετική χρήση του ενδύματος καθώς και το διαφορετικό στυλ, ύφασμα, χρώμα, μήκος φορέματος κλπ ανάλογα με την περίσταση είναι αυτό που συνιστά το dress code, και σύμφωνα με τις αρχές του δανδισμού αυτό σημαίνει αλλαγή ύπαρξης και ταυτόχρονα τάξης, καθότι αυτά τα δύο συγχέονται. Η ένδυση δυνητικά προβάλλει μηνύματα σχετικά με τη δήλωση ή διεκδίκηση προσωπικής ή πολιτιστικής ταυτότητας, όπως και τη θέσπιση, διατήρηση ή απόρριψη των εκάστοτε ομαδικών κοινωνικών νορμών. Παράλληλα, μεταφέρει ένα κοινωνικό μήνυμα, ακόμα κι αν δεν είναι αυτός ο αυτοσκοπός. Σε κάθε πολιτισμό, η μόδα ρυθμίζει τον τρόπο κατασκευής και συνδυασμού των ενδυμάτων, τα οποία φοριούνται για να επικοινωνήσουν το προαναφερθέν μήνυμα. Ο ρυθμός μεταβολής της μόδας ποικίλει, και έτσι η ερμηνεία των ίδιων μηνυμάτων σε διαφορετική χρονική περίοδο ή διαφορετική τοποθεσία μεταβάλλεται εξίσου. Ο όρος ενδυματολογικός κώδικας περιγράφει ένα σύνολο σημείων οργανωμένων σε ένα σύστημα που χρησιμοποιείται με σκοπό την επίτευξη επικοινωνίας μεταξύ ατομικοτήτων, κι με αυτή την λογική εξηγεί ο Barthes το σύστημα της μόδας, στο ομώνυμο βιβλίο του. Η μόδα είναι κάτι αυστηρά κωδικοποιημένο, που εξελίσσεται ατέρμονα κόντρα στον μύθο του αυτοσχεδιασμού, της δημιουργικότητας, της φαντασίας και της παρθενογένεσης ιδεών, αλλά είναι μία συνδυαστική συνθήκη αμιγώς μορφικών κανόνων. (μπαρτ)

Οι κανόνες αυτοί προκύπτουν από κοινωνικά μέσα που έχουν την μεγάλες δυνατότητες επιρροής, αφού η έννοια της μόδας προκύπτει από την ιδιοποίηση πρακτικών ενδυμασίας που γίνονται αποδεκτές από τις εκάστοτε κοινωνικές νόρμες, και στην περίπτωση του 21ου αιώνα ένα από αυτά τα μέσα είναι τα μέσα κοινωνικής δικτύωσης, που αδιάκοπα θέτουν κανόνες, όρια και προσταγές, όχι μόνο για τον τρόπο χρήσης των ενδυμάτων και για τις διάφορες περιστάσεις στις οποίες τα χρησιμοποιούμε, αλλά και μέχρι και το ποιος είναι ο ιδανικός τύπος σώματος από άποψη αναλογιών. Το dress code λοιπόν είναι βαθιά ριζωμένο στην κοινωνική σκέψη, κι ακόμα και διάφορες πολιτισμικές ομάδες που προσπάθησαν να απορρίψουν την ποπ κουλτούρα της εποχής κατέληξαν να γίνονται απολαβείς μιας φρενίτιδας που τοποθετούσε όλους όσους ασπάζονταν την εκάστοτε υποκουλτούρα σε μια απαιτητική συνθήκη ιδιοποίησης των χαρακτηριστικών της χωρίς κανένα περιθώριο απόκλισης.

 

F

Flapper woman: was a young woman in the ’20s with new ideas about how to live that broke away from the Victorian image of womanhood. She dropped the corset, chopped her hair, dropped layers of clothing to increase ease of movement, wore make-up, created the concept of dating, and became a sexual person. In breaking away from conservative Victorian values, flappers created what many considered the “new” or “modern” woman. She was a woman who celebrated the sexual revolution, disdained the notion of acceptable behavior, listened to jazz music that had just blossomed, smoked and drank in public. She strived for liberation and the idea of up-to-dateness, alertness, and growth.

G

Gender clothing:

Gender fluid:

Gibson Girl: was the personification of the feminine ideal of physical attractiveness as portrayed by the pen-and-ink illustrations of artist Charles Dana Gibson in the ’10s. The artist saw his creation as representing the composite of “thousands of American girls.” She combined a sense of respectability and sexuality, often tall and slender, with ample bosom, hips, and buttocks creating and S curve body-type. She was an athletic woman, however always perfectly dressed. Through her actions and way of lif.e, she appeared emancipated, but never actually involved with the suffrage movement.

M

Mod:

P

Plus-size:

Power dressing: was a phrase originally coined in ’70s America and by the ’80s, everyone was wearing this smart style of dress. Tailored jackets, shoulder pads, dresses whipped in at the waist and a skirt that stopped on the knee. It is used to convey the impression of assertiveness and competence and enable women to establish their authority in a professional and political environment traditionally dominated by men. The development of power dressing was pivotal in bringing to public visibility women in executive or business position. It served as a way to construct their image and to make them recognizable at public society’s eyes. Women saw this new clothing style as a way to detach from the classical feminine meaning of fashion, mainly associated with aesthetics and frivolity. The clothes were often made from silk or other expensive materials and their high cost emphasized the elite status of the women wearing them. But do women need to opt a -considered to be (because as Roland Barthes said, there is no garment that is by nature feminine or masculine)- a masculine way of dressing to ensure authority, respect, and power? Or could they achieve all those things, being at the same time feminine? Then again, who are we to define femininity or its visual representation?

Q

Queer:

R

Roaring Twenties:

Rosette: is the french diminutive of the rose flower. Hence, it is a small flower design that is widely used in jewelry, stitches and other designs.

S

Sack dress:

Sari: saree or shari, in Sanskrit meaning ‘strip of cloth’ is a garment consisting of a length of cotton or silk elaborately draped around the body, traditionally worn by women from South Asia. In the past, saris were handwoven of silk or cotton. The drape varies from 4 to 8 meters in length and around 1 meter in width. There are more than 80 recorded ways to wear a sari, but the most common one is the ‘Nivi’ style, where the sari is wrapped around the waist, with one end draped over the shoulder, baring the midriff. The sari is worn with fitted bodice and petticoat and has one plain end which is concealed inside the wrap, two long decorative borders and a section at the other end which continues and elaborates the length-wise decoration.

Slim suits:

Studio 54:

Suffragettes:

T

Theatrum mundi: (the whole world is a stage) is a metaphorical concept that started within ancient greek literature and developed throughout Western literature and thought. It is a metaphysical explanation of the world portrays the world as a theater wherein people are characters and their actions form a drama, with god, fortune or fate as the author. In literary history, this image developed from a metaphor to a recurrent formula and experienced a vibrant revival in the late Middle Ages as an all-encompassing portrayal of the universe, culminating as a powerful emblem of the spirit and art of an entire age, the Age of the Baroque.

Tie-dye: is a term invented in the mid-’60s in the U.S. describing the process of folding, twisting, pleating or crumpling fabric and binding it with string or rubber bands, followed by application of dye. The fabric should be at least 80% natural fiber such as cotton, linen or hemp, otherwise, it will not allow the dye to be absorbed. Tie-dye is characterized by the use of bright, saturated primary colors and bold patterns and reached popularity in the ’60s and 70s. However, this form of art has been around for thousands of years. The oldest kind of tie-dye is called Bandhni, which is a fabric with dots from ties with thread, and originated in India 5.000 years ago. Japanese artists also created tie-dye projects in the 8th century, and by using some extraordinary fabrics for kimonos they designed elaborate patterns on fabric before dying them. In West Africa, they used embroidery to create patterns, and the famous bright blue dyes came from Nigeria. Still, artists from the Western world claim credit for inventing tie-dyeing, but a simple google search will prevent them form being ignorant. Hippies and rock stars such as Janis Joplin and John Sebastian made the technique popular, as a cheap and accessible way to customize inexpensive clothing, and it has been yet again brought back in fashion, at ‘New York Fashion Week’ for spring 2019, or else ‘a nostalgia fest’.

Tunic:

Tuxedo:

Tweed:

U

Uniformity:

W

Whalebone:

Wrap dress: is a dress with a front closure formed by wrapping one side across the other, and knotting the attached ties that wrap around the back at the waist or fastening buttons, usually made out of elastic, cotton, wool, nylon, polyester, or rayon. This forms a V-shaped neckline and hugs the wearer’s curves. Although it is often claimed that Diane von Fürstenberg invented the wrap dress in 1972, it was originally designed by Charles James and Elsa Schiaparelli in the ’30s and by Claire McCardell in the ’40s. Charles James called it the “Taxi Dress,” because he wanted to create a dress that “a woman could slip into – or out of- in the back of a cab.” Elsa Schiaparelli, who was Paul Poiret’s student,was friends with some of the members of the Parisian avant-garde in the 1920s and ’30s, such as Man Ray, Baron de Meyer, Alfred Stieglitz, Marcel Duchamp, Salvador Dalì, Francis Picabia and described the wrap dress as “The perfect dress, the one that will never go out of style, is just one: the dress of freedom”. Claire McCardell named it the ‘popover dress’ and was her response to the lifestyle of women during World War II- a busy one in which housewives had many responsibilities both in and outside the home. DVF then experimented with, explored and re-invented the wrap dress, using colors, patterns, and new techniques.